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CO2 is Harmless however Clouds are Responsible.  New Science has Created a “Black Swan Occasion”** – Watts Up With That?

By Charles Blaisdell PhD ChE  

**From internet sources: “,… in 1697 the Dutch explorer Willem de Vlamingh found black swans in Australia, upending the assumption” (that each one swans had been white) “and reworking how we perceive the pure world.  …the phrase “black swan occasion” got here to consult with an occasion that immediately proves one thing that was beforehand considered unattainable.”

(This paper is a continuation of my earlier paper   (1) with new knowledge that reaches the conclusion that “CO2 is harmless however Clouds are Responsible” )

Half I:  CO2 is Harmless however Clouds are Responsible.

     Our tax {dollars} have been at work with NASA for the final 20+ years placing satellites in orbit to detect and measure the “CO2 impact” on International Warming, GW.  After 20 years, the CERES satellite tv for pc (and others) has found that cloud discount is the most important impact on GW for these 20 years. Two papers revealed in 2021 attain this conclusion, Dübal and Vahrenholt,  (2) and. Loeb, Gregory et al  (3)  These new papers do declare some signal of CO2 impact (and different greenhouse gases) on GW; however the papers present the dominate impact on GW for these 20 years was the cloud discount impact (albedo reduction- warming).   This paper will present that the noticed cloud discount will account for all of the GW in these 20 years and again to 1975, leaving no GW left over for the CO2 impact on GW. Cloud discount is albedo discount, (albedo: shade of the earth, black, 0.0, is sizzling and white, 1.0, is cool).  One other lately revealed paper (2021) by Goode et al (4) measuring earth’s albedo from moon shine additionally experiences the identical discount in albedo because the CERES knowledge of each Dübal and Loeb:  one can solely conclude that for 20 years of information the albedo change is actual.   Why is albedo change vital?  As a result of the IPCC concept of CO2 impact on GW assumes that the earth’s albedo has been fixed (or not modified a lot) and CO2 (and different greenhouse gases) via Radiative Forcing impact GW.  The resent satellite tv for pc knowledge says this isn’t true.   Cloud cowl adjustments are greatest documented at “Local weather and Clouds”(5) with hyperlinks to the information supply at “Local weather Explorer” (6).  “Local weather and Clouds” conclude that cloud change solely accounts for 25% of the GW.  This paper will present an improved evaluation of “Local weather and Clouds” knowledge agrees with the CERES knowledge of Dübal and Loeb that cloud discount is accounting for many if not all the warming over CERES’s 20 years.  Figures 1 and a couple of present a graphic illustration of what Dübal and Loeb noticed within the CERES knowledge and what was anticipated from IPCC Radiative Forcing, RF, concept.  The form (slopes) of the noticed and anticipated are solely completely different however the enhance within the lacking vitality (Earths Power Imbalance, EEI) is similar.  The lacking vitality, EEI, is used to heat the earth although the vitality stability equation:

Power In = Power out + Accumulation (EEI)    Eq 1.

If the buildup (EEI) is constructive the earth warms if adverse the earth cools.

     Cloud discount results GW by decreasing the quantity of extremely reflective clouds overlaying the earth and letting in additional solar mild to heat the earth, Cloud Discount International Warming, CRGW.

Is Cloud Cowl Altering?

     Sure, Cloud cowl adjustments with seasons, hemisphere, altitude, and over time. Determine 3 exhibits the satellite tv for pc knowledge for cloud cowl for the entire earth vs time (about 36 years).  The sine-al nature of the graph is a seasonal variation proven in Determine 4.  Determine 5 exhibits the hemispherical variations in cloud cowl.  The hemispherical and seasonal variation in cloud cowl is expounded to the lean of the axis (23.5’ north) of the rotating earth favoring the northern hemisphere with extra solar mild and the bigger land mass of the northern hemisphere (Whole land mass of the earth is 39% of that 68% is within the northern hemisphere and 32% within the southern hemisphere).  Will probably be later proven that, these variables change the relative humidity that are liable for the sine-al nature of the cloud cowl.

     For world warming the change in cloud cowl over years is the variable of curiosity.  The entire earth’s cloud cowl (least squares match from “local weather Explorer” knowledge) vs time in Determine 5 present a 0.075 % cloud change/12 months.  Notice the excessive diploma of variability in Determine 5, a few of this variability is theorized by Dübal and Vahrenholt,  (2) to be because of the AMO (Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation) within the northern hemisphere which is a pure oscillation in ocean temperature with a interval of 60-80 12 months and an amplitude of +/-0.2’C.  (a interval up swing of the AMO occurred within the 1985 to 2020 vary and may very well be associated to the height in 1997 and flatting after 2000 in Determine 5).  There’s additionally a periodic swing in ocean temperature within the Pacific, PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) within the southern hemisphere (generally often known as El Nino) with a interval just like the AMO of 60-80 years and a smaller amplitude of about +/- 0.1’C. The amplitude of every of those oscillations is smaller than the general change in temperature and usually are not growing over time.  The durations of AMO and PDO appear to be reverse and will have some canceling impact on a worldwide foundation.  Additional clarification of those oscillations are greatest left as much as the consultants, on this paper, they’re simply potential noise makers to the cloud discount knowledge and emphasize the significance of long run knowledge (the 36 years of cloud knowledge will not be sufficient).  The 36 12 months cloud cowl lower of 0.75% per decade shall be utilized in calculations of cloud effected vitality adjustments.

     Yet another variable that must be thought-about in temperature vs cloud cowl:  Time delay, when clouds lower a part of the solar mild fall on land and the remainder on water.  Land offers its vitality again to the environment rapidly (over days), over water the vitality is saved for years.  Some have calculated as much as 80 years for a step change in vitality into the ocean to come back the complete equilibrium  (20) and (21).   This time delay is another excuse to make use of long run slope date to investigate cloud change knowledge.  Our present 36 years of cloud knowledge might be not sufficient to finish our understanding of cloud cowl and GW. It must be famous that floor sea temperature, SST, follows air temperature intently, questioning the importance of the time delay.

Cloud Cowl Change vs Temperature Change

     An empirical strategy to relating cloud cowl to temperature is to divide the least squares matches of the temperature change by cloud discount change over the 36 years of information.  Determine 6 exhibits each least squares matches with the results of the ratio being -0.27 ‘C/% cloud change.  “Local weather and Clouds”(5)  scatter plot of month-to-month temperature and cloud cowl of the identical knowledge confirmed a least squares match of -0.066 ‘C/% cloud cowl; additional emphasizing the necessity to use long run knowledge to higher perceive cloud and temperature relationships.    [“Climate4You” (5) web site is a product of ISCCP:  (“Since July 1983, ongoing variations in the global cloud cover have been monitored by The International Sattelite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). This project was established as part of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) to collect weather satellite radiance measurements …”.) ] The “Climate4You” ratio solely accounts for 25% of the noticed ( 0.4 ‘C) 20 years of CERES knowledge.  Determine 6’s -0.27 ‘C/% cloud cowl accounts for all the noticed temperature change.

     Though vital, this ratio of temperature and cloud cowl change is just not one of the best ways to show the importance of cloud cowl change.  The CERES knowledge is vitality knowledge, cloud cowl change have to be associated to CERES vitality observations. Desk 1 converts the noticed albedo from Dübal (2) to vitality change (Quick Wave, SW, in – SW out at Prime Of the Ambiance, TOA) and is proven in Determine 7.  Desk 2 makes use of the cloud cowl from “Local weather Explorer” least squares slot in Determine 5 and the Dübal “cloudy space” and “clear sky” albedo knowledge to calculate the vitality to the earth, the outcomes are proven in Determine 7.  The comparability of the 2 calculation is shut sufficient to assert: the cloud cowl change can account for all of the temperate change and vitality change noticed within the 20 years of CERES knowledge.

     (Notice: in Desk 2 Dübal noticed a small (however vital) change within the “Clear sky” albedo (lowering). The “clear sky” albedo is the bottom (land + ocean) shade of the earth.  Holding the cloud change fixed exhibits this small albedo “clear sky” albedo change can account for 15% of the noticed vitality within the 20 years of CERES knowledge.  Cloud change is the most important impact on GW)

Why a 1975 Zero for the CERES knowledge?

     Many researchers have seen that the temperature vs time curve since 1880 is just not linear, the information higher matches an exponential or 2ed diploma polynomial.   One can even use two linear equations to suit the information, as proven in Determine 8.  The intersection of the 2 traces is about 1975.  The decrease line has a poor R^2 and accounts for about 25% of the temperature rise.  The second line has a a lot larger R^2 and account for about 75% of the rise.  We’ve got much more knowledge within the 1975 to 2020 vary so we should always have a greater likelihood of explaining GW in that vary.

     The extrapolated knowledge and 20 years of CERES knowledge in Determine 7 are overlayed on Determine 8 – match.  Desk 1 and a couple of present that albedo change and cloud cowl change from 2001 to 2020 and from 1975 to 2020 can account for all of the temperature change in every interval.   CRGW is a legitimate concept and must be thought-about by the IPCC.

How did this vital change in scientific understanding happen?

     The 2021 papers by Dübal, Loeb, and Goode (and a few others) verifying a 20-year change within the earth’s albedo is sort of a scientific “Black Swan Occasion” **.  The earth’s albedo and cloud cowl altering over time was completely surprising (“all swans are white”).  Albedo change being attributable to cloud cowl discount was additionally surprising previous to 2021.  All earlier strategies of measuring albedo and cloud cowl confirmed no change.  There have been modelers like Walcek (7) who predicted that if cloud cowl modified it may very well be as vital as the anticipated greenhouse fuel GW.  The impact of greenhouse gases may very well be measured within the decrease environment and was recognized to be saturated (all prepared sufficient, extra wouldn’t change GW).  The IPCC wanted a concept that would account for the noticed GW with fixed albedo and cloud cowl – That concept was Radiative Forcing, RF.  RF is a believable concept however wanted to be measured within the higher environment.  NASA despatched up satellites to measure the RF (together with many different factor).   NASA’s satellites modified the strategy of measurement and the accuracy and with 20 years of information might see the small variations in massive numbers wanted.  And right here we’re immediately making an attempt to get the IPCC to have a look at the “Black Swan”.

     Fashions are additionally a contributing issue.  There are local weather fashions that use scientific legal guidelines and math (like IPCC’s International Circulation Fashions, GMC’s) to calculate GW and like the straightforward fashions in Tables 1 and a couple of.  Different fashions use statistical multi variable evaluation, SMVA, to foretell GW.  The usage of SMVAs can result in some inaccurate conclusions.  Good multi variable evaluation design an experimental grid to keep away from confounded variables, it’s tough to do that with pure knowledge.  Within the case of GW, Cloud cowl, relative humidity, albedo, particular humidity, CO2, and different GHGs are all confounded with the earth’s temperature change.  Variables with excessive accuracy in measurement and particular developments, like CO2, will dominate in SMVAs, even when they don’t have anything to do with GW.  Variables with poor measurement however good developments (however are the true impact on GW), like cloud cowl, will present significance in SMVA’s however not remove variables like CO2.  Outcomes from a SMVA usually are not a proof.  The IPCC’s SMVA mannequin has a “canine’s breakfast” of variables in its AR6 mannequin of GW, in AR6 cloud cowl is just not listed, however cloud density is, as a worldwide cooling variable.   In all equity, AR6 was issued in 2021 the identical time on the Dübal and Loeb papers  – they could be them now.

What’s inflicting the discount in Cloud Cowl?

     Cloud cowl is a part of the earth’s water cycle:  the solar’s vitality evaporates water, the water vapor makes clouds, and clouds make rain.  We are searching for a disturbance on this pure cycle

The water cycle variables which can be a signature of cloud cowl change:

Long run Signature of Cloud Cowl Discount

1.     Temperature growing (much less cloud cowl – extra solar’s vitality to the earth, see Determine 8)

2.     Particular Humidity growing (a results of larger temperature and extra evaporation the environment can holding extra water, see Determine 9)

3.     Rain fall growing (extra vitality in evaporates extra water, (if not used for particular humidity enhance) the water obtained to come back again down.  A statistical enhance has been noticed however very low R^2 – graph not proven)

4.     Relative humidity lowering (primary impact on much less clouds which results in the opposite atmospheric variables, see Determine 10 and Determine 12)

     It is a distinctive set of atmospheric variables solely related to cloud discount.

Relative Humidity and Cloud Discount

     Relative Humidity, RH, has for a very long time been related to clouds.  Determine 11 present a web page from Walcek (7)  1995 report which present the decline in cloud cowl vs RH noticed by him and different researchers.  The pattern is there however the noise stage is excessive.  Satellites have improved the statement.   “Local weather and Clouds”(5) exhibits that various kinds of clouds kind at completely different ranges and that their formation could also be triggered by issues apart from RH.  Particulates (aerosols) and cosmic rays have been documented as sources of cloud formation.  Even at 100% RH air can grow to be tremendous saturated and never kind clouds.  All of the variables are in all probability liable for the noise in Determine 11; however the normal pattern is RH.  Of the three classes of clouds talked about in “Local weather and Clouds”(5) The one one which confirmed a big discount over time was the “Low Degree” clouds, cumulus clouds.  Cumulus clouds are about 28% of the entire 63% cloud cowl of the earth.  The opposite clouds solely create noise within the complete cloud cowl knowledge.  In “Worldwide Satellite tv for pc Cloud Climatology Challenge” (8) Cumulus clouds had been the one cloud varieties of 9 varieties of clouds that confirmed discount over time, see Determine 13.   

     Cumulus clouds are those most affected by adjustments in RH from the earth floor in that they’re those involved with low RH air first.   The info in Figures 4, 5, and 6 include all cloud varieties, however the yearly oscillations are associated to comparable adjustments in “low stage” clouds and RH with time.  These oscillations can be utilized to make a plot of RH vs cloud cowl for all of the month-to-month knowledge in Determine 3 to supply the scatter plot in Determine 14.  The info factors used within the mannequin in Desk 2 are in crimson.  Notice that these factors are throughout the vary of the pure variation of the information.

     The info in Determine 14 could be damaged down into extra element to indicate the distinction in month-to-month profiles between Northern Hemisphere (NH), Sothern Hemisphere and Time shift, see Determine 15.  Notice the anticipated distinction in form of the NH and SH plots, in some months they cancel one another and in different complement one another giving the general ends in Determine 4.  In Determine 15 the cloud change within the Southern Hemisphere is larger than within the NH and the Sothern Hemisphere considerably dominates the general cloud change.  All of the plots shift with time because the relativity humidity decreases.

The Lacking Power within the Earth’s EEI, Eq 1

     The lacking vitality in Determine 1  can go to the next paces  see Desk 7 for particulars:

·      Heat the dry air within the environment.  (Small however vital)

·      enhance the moisture within the environment and is the most important use of EEI vitality (particular humidity, Determine 9 and Desk 7)

·      enhance precipitation (small)

·      heat the land (small)

·      heat the oceans (small, with a time delay)

The majority of the vitality goes into water enhance within the environment.

    The Dübal and Loeb knowledge can be utilized to estimate a levels Celsius / W/m^2 vitality change from brief wave vitality change of 0.3 ‘C per W/m^2.

Conclusion So Far

     There isn’t any doubt that albedo of the earth has modified over the past 20 years (and longer) and that this albedo change is because of cloud cowl discount (and a bit “clear sky” albedo change).  The cloud cowl discount is expounded to relative humidity discount.  Relative humidity discount has been going since 1948 (attainable longer).  The cloud discount knowledge (beginning in 1984) has been extrapolated again to 1975.  Cloud discount has been round for some time.  CO2 is harmless however cloud cowl discount is responsible.  Leaving the query:

Half II.  Cloud discount results GW however ‘Man” continues to be Responsible.

What’s affecting the Relative Humidity discount?

 The statement of relative humidity lowering (see Determine 10 and 12) has lengthy puzzled local weather scientist.  Most local weather fashions present particular humidity growing (which it does) and relative humidity staying the identical.  Papers by J. Taylor (9) and Ok.  Willett (10)  each categorical that growing SH and lowering RH is inconsistent with CO2 (and different GHGs) impact on GW with no clarification as to why.  This paper offers a proof.

     The speculation Cloud Discount International Warming, CRGW, has been proposed (1): “Man’s adjustments to land use results the manufacturing of low relative humidity, RH, sizzling air rising to the place clouds may very well be prevented (or destroyed) thus decreasing the albedo of the earth”.  This discount in RH is triggered by a localized discount (not a rise) in Particular Humidity, SH.  This discount in SH is going on solely on land and is over whelmed by the rise in SH from evaporation (from oceans) because of the decrease Cloud Cowl, CC.  The connection between SH, RH, and CC has a really giant pure amplification issue.

  The important thing to CRGW is water evaporation, transpiration, or run off on land.  When water (rain or snow) falls on the land it could soak into the bottom or run off.  On land when floor water is just not obtainable the relative humidity drops.  In any man-made construction that covers the virgin land prevents water from soaking in and will increase the Run Off, RO.  When water is just not obtainable for Evaporation or Transpiration, ET, the relative humidity drops.  (ET is usually known as Evapotranspiration.)  Some man-made results (anthropological world warming, AGW) sources of relative humidity discount are:

·      Cities

·      Any man-made construction that covers the pure floor

·      Forest to farm land or pasture land

·      Pumping water from aquifers

·      Forest hearth land change.

·      Flood water prevention like dams and levees.

·      I’m positive there are others

     Determine 13 exhibits an excellent depiction of the water cycle on earth.  Of curiosity to the CRGW concept is the land half exhibiting rain fall, evaporation, transpiration, and run off, RO.  Notice that the rain fall is the sum of the evaporation, transpiration, and run off.  The evaporation is from water that has soaked in to the bottom.  Transpiration is water that evaporates by means of any type of vegetation, timber have the very best.  Within the land water stability if any considered one of these adjustments it results the others.   An instance: if the virgin land is canopy with asphalt or concrete that stops water from soaking in to the bottom the place vegetation can evaporate the water then the water will run off and the ET will lower.  One other instance: If a forest is changed with farm land or pasture the forest’s floor cowl now not holds water.  The crops that changed the forest are solely rising a part of the 12 months and wouldn’t have the leaf space because the tree’s many leaves and deep roots, all this lower the ET.  A lowering ET will increase the Run Off, RO.  This transformation in ET units in movement a collection of occasions on land the place ET has been restricted:

1.     RO enhance making ET lower, this lowers the native particular humidity, SH (SH % change is one other measure of ET % change).  The land-based change in RH vs SH is proven in Determine 17, exhibiting a 21:1 ratio.  Desk 6 adjusts this relationship for the entire earth, down to six.2 : 1.

2.     Because the ET lower, this creates low relativity humidity, RH, air with SH change equal to the change in -RO(%) and +ET(%).  On this step the RH and SH each decease.  Notice at this level the native SH lower is reverse the noticed world enhance.

3.     Because the low humidity air rises (to the place clouds kind) the relative humidity, RH, drops even additional. One other amplification happens, 4.58 : 1, Determine 10 slope ratios, SH 850mb/SH 1000 mb..

4.     The low RH air spreads world wide (primarily off shore) and reduces cloud cowl, CC,  this course of has the smallest of amplifications, 1.2 : 1, In Desk 3 dif. CC/dif. RH 850mb.

5.     Much less CC lets extra solar’s radiation in.  Desk 6 exhibits the product of all these amplifications to be  34:1 change in CC per change in SH by means of this collection steps of RH adjustments.

6.     Extra radiation warms all earth’s surfaces.  On land extra radiation makes the relative humidity even decrease.

7.     On the oceans the radiation enhance warms the water and evaporates extra water growing the worldwide particular humidity, SH.  This enhance is larger than the native land lower in SH ensuing within the noticed enhance in SH.

8.     The result’s the rising SH and dropping RH.  The localized brief time period ET results usually are not seen on a yearly foundation.  (Determine 1 in (1) exhibits metropolis examples)

     This record of occasions is best seen by Determine 18.  Determine 18 is a blowup of a small a part of a Psychrometric Chart, PC, that greatest describes the earth’s environment.  Desk 3 is a listing of all of the least squares match knowledge (from Figures on this paper) which can be used to indicate the CRGW concept is legitimate.  Desk 4 places this knowledge in to a “Free on Line PC “, (11) to check the match of precise 1975 and 2020 knowledge to calculated knowledge from (11).  The low distinction in Desk 4 exhibits match.  The “Free on-Line Psychrometric Chart” is an efficient calculator for atmospheric adjustments.

Estimating ET adjustments

     ET is considerably like cloud cowl; It varies so much from season to season, hemisphere to hemisphere, and with land mass.   What we’re searching for is small adjustments over time (smaller than the cloud adjustments – keep in mind the amplification issue).      

     The best to clarify change is ET is Cities or higher often known as City Warmth Islands, UHI’s,   UHI’s obtained their fame as warmth island due the upper temperature from decrease albedo and decrease water, SH.  The impact on RH was not appreciated till this paper and the earlier paper.  UHI’s temperature, SH, and RH habits is predicted by a PC in (1).  The UHI’s change in ET is expounded to run off, RO, growing, (if precipitation can’t soak into the bottom, it runs off and isn’t obtainable for ET).  The earths land floor is roofed by 3% city improvement, and about half of the inhabitants lives there.  The construction that the opposite half lives in additionally covers the earth with roof tops and drive methods that don’t enable water to soak in and in addition growing the RO.  That provides 6% of the earths land mass having an impact on the RO and ET.   The quantity of RO change for UHI’s is difficult to seek out knowledge on however a lab experiment by U of Colorado Faculty of Eng. (16) exhibits a 20%-30% enhance in RO.  Desk 5 makes use of 6% of land protection and 25% change in RO.

     RO adjustments from land use adjustments are additionally onerous to seek out.  Probably the greatest experiences on land change from satellite tv for pc knowledge is by Winkler Ok. et al (16)  with knowledge claiming 32% of the land has been modified by man.  Most adjustments had been virgin land to crop or pasture, some was reclaimed pasture again to forest.  Run Off within the Mississippi river basin pc simulations is documented by Tracy E. et al (18) exhibiting a spread of RO from +45% to -25% relying on what was being transformed to what.     McMenemie C. (19)   paper singles out damming rivers and placing in levies to forestall flooding to have a big impact on ET. 

     Depleting aquifers results the water desk to decrease and scale back the water obtainable for ET thus making extra low RH air.  Most floor water from aquifers is recycled again as recharge but the earths aquifers are lowering.  In response to the online “Usually, 10 to twenty % of the precipitation that falls to the Earth enters water-bearing strata, that are often known as aquifers.”  The ten to twenty % will not be proven precisely in Determine 16 (it’s attainable it’s a part of the RO).  No knowledge may very well be discovered on the entire earth impact of decrease floor water on ET or RH – it shouldn’t be insignificant.  

     The examine of ET is a comparatively new monitoring subject.  Most paper on the topic at lower than 10 years of information and the emphasis of the research are often water administration or carbon sequestration little or no atmospheric particular humidity  or relative humidity knowledge is reported.  Some satellite tv for pc knowledge is simply began (< 5 yrs).  The outcomes of present papers usually are not constant.  Some examples: BaolinXue et al (23)   exhibits no change in 20 years from rural land-based stations within the FLUXNET dataset (as anticipated on non-land change areas and never city knowledge).  Samuel Zipper et al  (24) have a brief (4 12 months) however excellent examine of Madison Wi USA UHI exhibiting a 5%/12 months drop in ET in a 20 km^2 radius of Madison central (not a statistically vital time).  Qingzhou Zheng et al (25) examine of a complete water shed (110 km^2) in China that included forest, crop-land, baron land, rivers, wetlands, and cities confirmed a 7% discount in ET in 13 years, with the principle issue being city growth.

     This paper will use estimates of land change RO that’s within the vary of the publish knowledge as proven in Desk 5, 30% land protection and 10% RO change.  The person-made construction RO (% of world) added to the RO (% of world) totals 1.3% (% of world) (or -ET% change).   It isn’t the intension of this paper to be an skilled on ET change solely to indicate this alteration can account for all of the GW at  1.3% (% of world) from 1975 to 2020.

Rationalization of Determine 18 mannequin of the Path taken by the 1975 to 2020 local weather change.

      Determine 18 is a really blown-up Psychrometric Chart exhibiting the chain of results (the trail) to the ultimate 1975 to 2020 noticed local weather change.  The parallel vitality (all atmospheric adjustments happen at fixed vitality or a shift in vitality) traces are established from the noticed 1975 and 2020 knowledge of 33.54 kJ/kg(da) for 1975 and 35.72 kJ/kg(da) 2020.  The start line is the 1975 SH at 7.7 g/kg(da) on the 33.54 kj/kg(da) vitality line.  The ET change of -1.3% (above) is about -0.1 SH change proven at 7.6 g/kg(da) within the Determine 18 mannequin.   The 34:1 pure amplification of this SH change (by means of RH adjustments) ends in the CC discount (see Desk 6) and the vitality shift to the 2020 parallel vitality line of 35.72 kJ/kg(da).  The recent low RH air evaporates water (enhance SH), cools the air and will increase the RH to the 2020 finish level.  This method of tracing an vitality, temp, SH, and RH path is normal in engineering heating cooling design.

Conclusions on the Results of Relative Humidity Discount Over Time.

     The excessive sensitivity of SH to RH to CC is a pure phenomenon.  The CC variation in Determine 3 is pure (effected by tilt of the earth and bigger land mass within the NH) tracked by RH and SH.   These pure CC variations are larger than the CC discount noticed.   The pure legal guidelines used within the Psychrometric Chart present the excessive sensitivity of RH to SH.  Utilizing an estimate of RO within the vary of publish knowledge exhibits match to noticed knowledge.  This explains the rising SH and lowering RH.

     The modelers of the 1990’s the place heading in the right direction – if clouds change the outcomes could be as robust because the that anticipated from CO2.  The IPCC ought to consider CRGW concept. 

Figures and Tables

Determine 1,  Graph of what Dübal and Loeb each noticed (all vitality is TOA).

Determine 2,  Graph of what was anticipated within the 20 years of CERES knowledge primarily based on IPCC Radiative Forcing concept of greenhouse gases.

Determine 3, Cloud Cowl over 45 years from “Local weather and Clouds”(5) exhibits the seasonal and time discount in world cloud cowl.

Determine 4, Breaking down Determine 3 knowledge by common/month exhibits a low in cloud cowl in the summertime month (NH) and a excessive within the winter months (NH) on account of bigger land mass and axis tilt in NH vs SH.  Later Figures exhibits the hemispherical contribution to this Determine.   Relative Humidity from “NOAA Bodily Science Laboratory” was added to indicate the great match.

Determine 5, From “Local weather Explorer” (6).  Displaying the distinction in hemispherical cloud cowl on account of northern hemisphere getting extra solar than the southern hemisphere.  All knowledge is 3 12 months smoothed.

Determine 6, Mix satellite tv for pc knowledge for cloud cowl and temperature on graph to get a -0.27 ‘C/% cloud cowl ratio.  All knowledge is 3 12 months smoothed.

Determine 7,  Noticed from Albedo change and Calculated from Cloud Cowl Change within the 20 years of CERES knowledge.  An excellent match.

Desk 1, Albedo Change Mannequin from Dubal (2) knowledge.  Extrapolation to 1975.

Desk 2, Calculated vitality change utilizing Cloud change knowledge from “Local weather Explorer” and Dübal knowledge for “cloudy space” albedo and “clear sky” albedo.

Determine 8, Dividing Temperature vs Time into two components and overlaying SW vitality change from albedo and clouds.  Good match to 1975 to 2020 knowledge. All knowledge is 3 12 months smoothed.

Determine 8a,  1975 to 2020 a part of Determine 8 with precise knowledge, least squares match used for calculation.  All knowledge is 3 12 months smoothed

Determine 9, Particular Humidity vs time, notice the break level at 1975.  All knowledge is 3 12 months smoothed

Determine 10,  Relative Humidity vs 12 months for floor stage and cloud stage.  Cloud stage RH way more delicate than floor stage RH.  Cloud stage RH shall be used.

Determine 11 Copy of page from Walcek (7) exhibiting the 1995 correlation of clouds and RH.

Determine 12,  Relative Humidity at 850 mb (cloud stage) vs time.  Notice distinction between NH and SH.  Good correlation, RH has been altering for a very long time.

Determine 13,  “Worldwide Satellite tv for pc Cloud Climatology Challenge” (8) of simply Cumulus cloud cowl over 27 years.  Cumulus clouds had been the one ones altering of 9 cloud varieties studied.

Determine 14,  Scatter plot of all of the month-to-month knowledge in Determine 3 and 12 to acquire a correlation between RH and Cloud Cowl.  Pink dots are knowledge used within the Mannequin in Desk 2.

Determine 15,  Month-to-month plot of cloud cowl in each northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere.

Determine 16.  diagram of the water cycle on earth from Trenberth et al (13)

Determine 17.  Relative Humidity vs Particular Humidity the common slopes, 21, shall be utilized in Desk 6 to indicate the pure change in RH/SH.

Determine 18,  Path of vitality and Particular Humidity, SH, change that accounts for the noticed 1975 to 2020 change.


1.     “The place have all of the Clouds gone and why care? “ internet hyperlink:  The place have all of the Clouds gone and why care? – Watts Up With That?  

2.     “Radiative Power Flux Variation from 2001–2020” by Hans-Rolf Dübal and Fritz Vahrenholt  internet hyperlink:  Ambiance | Free Full-Textual content | Radiative Power Flux Variation from 2001–2020 | HTML (

3.     “Satellite tv for pc and Ocean Information Reveal Marked Enhance in Earth’s Heating Charge” by Norman G. Loeb,Gregory C. Johnson,Tyler J. Thorsen,John M. Lyman,Fred G. Rose,Seiji Kato  internet hyperlink  Satellite tv for pc and Ocean Information Reveal Marked Enhance in Earth’s Heating Charge – Loeb – 2021 – Geophysical Analysis Letters – Wiley On-line Library

4.     “Earth’s Albedo 1998–2017 as Measured From Earthshine”  by P. R. Goode,E. Pallé,A. Shoumko,S. Shoumko,P. Montañes-Rodriguez,S. E. Koonin  First revealed: 29 August 2021  internet hyperlink:  Earth’s Albedo 1998–2017 as Measured From Earthshine – Goode – 2021 – Geophysical Analysis Letters – Wiley On-line Library

5.     “Local weather and clouds” by website  hyperlink    climate4you ClimateAndClouds

6.     Local weather Explorer website  Local weather Explorer: Choose a month-to-month subject (  go to “Cloud Cowl”  click on “EUMETSAT CM-SAF 0.25° cloud fraction”  click on “choose subject” at prime of web page on subsequent web page enter latitude (-90 to 90) and longitude (-180 to 180) for complete earth.

7.     “Clouds and relative humidity in local weather fashions; or what actually regulates cloud cowl?”  by Walcek, C. internet hyperlink Clouds and relative humidity in local weather fashions; or what actually regulates cloud cowl? (Technical Report) | OSTI.GOV

8.     “Worldwide Satellite tv for pc Cloud Climatology Challenge” Internet web page:  ISCCP: Local weather Evaluation – Half 7 (

9.     “Declining Humidity Is Defying International Warming Fashions”  by James Taylor  internet hyperlink  Declining Humidity Is Defying International Warming Fashions (

10.“Investigating local weather change’s ‘humidity paradox’”  by Dr Kate Willett  internet hyperlink How is local weather change affecting world humidity ranges? | World Financial Discussion board (

11.“Free On-line Interactive Psychrometric Chart”  by  Free On-line Interactive Psychrometric Chart internet hyperlink:  Free On-line Interactive Psychrometric Chart (flycarpet.web)

12.“NASA Bodily Sciences Laboratory” website:  Month-to-month Imply Timeseries: NOAA Bodily Sciences Laboratory

13.”Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and International Power Flows in Reanalyses” by Kevin E. Trenberth1, John T. Fasullo1, and Jessica Mackaro1  internet hyperlink:  Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and International Power Flows in Reanalyses in: Journal of Local weather Quantity 24 Situation 18 (2011) (

14.“Met Workplace Local weather Dashboard”  internet hyperlink  Humidity | Local weather Dashboard (

15.“Very important Indicators”  Internet hyperlink  International Temperature | Very important Indicators – Local weather Change: Very important Indicators of the Planet (

16.“Pure and City “Stormwater” Water Cycle Fashions” by U of Colorado school of Engineering website  Pure and City “Stormwater” Water Cycle Fashions – Exercise – TeachEngineering

17.“International land use adjustments are 4 occasions larger than beforehand estimated” by  Karina Winkler, Richard Fuchs, Mark Rounsevell & Martin Herold  website:  International land use adjustments are 4 occasions larger than beforehand estimated | Nature Communications

18.“Results of Land Cowl Change on the Power and Water Steadiness of the Mississippi River Basin”  by Tracy E. Twine1, Christopher J. Kucharik2, and Jonathan A. Foley3 internet hyperlink Results of Land Cowl Change on the Power and Water Steadiness of the Mississippi River Basin in: Journal of Hydrometeorology Quantity 5 Situation 4 (2004) (

19.“Causes for Enhance in International Imply Temperature and Local weather Change”  By Conor McMenemie website:  Causes for Enhance in International Imply Temperature and Local weather Change (allaboutenergy.web)

20.“Tips on how to Warmth a Planet? Influence of Anthropogenic Landscapes on Earth’s Albedo and Temperature Mark Healey Lindfield”,  Internet file:

21.“Analogy 04 Ocean Time Lag”  by Skeptical Science  internet hyperlink  SkS Analogy 4 – Ocean Time Lag (

22.“Impact of groundwater pumping on the well being of arid vegetative ecosystems” by Victor M. Ponce internet hyperlink effect_of_groundwater_pumping.pdf (

23.International evapotranspiration hiatus defined by vegetation structural and physiological controls by BaolinXue et al  internet hyperlink International evapotranspiration hiatus defined by vegetation structural and physiological controls – ScienceDirect

24.City warmth island-induced will increase in evapotranspirative demand by Samuel Zipper et al internet hyperlink  (PDF) City warmth island-induced will increase in evapotranspirative demand (researchgate.web)

25.Results of Urbanization on Watershed Evapotranspiration and Its Elements in  Southern China  by Qingzhou Zheng internet hyperlink Microsoft Phrase – water-713292.docx (



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